The complexity of the history of the Philippines had made the Filipino culture diverse as it has been under many influences.
The Spanish colonizers greatly shaped our culture and values since its regime lasted for more than three and a half centuries. This is most evident in our folk music, dance, language, art, and religion.
Family. The family is the basic unit of society. Family ties are valued highly because Filipinos tend to be very close with family members. The nuclear family setup is the standard with Filipinos, which is why divorce is illegal in the Philippines.
Common Values. Being respectful is one of the most common Filipino values that is being especially instilled in the minds of young Filipinos. The use of “Po” and “opo”, for instance, is an expression of respect to elders in the Tagalog culture (especially true among those living in Luzon). Grandparents and the elderly are also shown a special gesture of respect by the placing of the back of the elder’s hand (at the fingers) against one’s forehead, called “mano”.
Most of the time, you will hear children calling their neighbors and distant relatives “auntie” and “uncle” or “tiyo” and “tiya” in the Visayan area.
Shame or hiya is the Filipino way of living up to accepted standards of behavior.
Utang na loob or “debt of gratitude”s, is owed by one to a person who has helped him through some difficulties he had undergone.
Death. Death in the Philippines is one of the most important occasions in family life. It is a tradition to hold a wake where families, relatives, neighbors, and friends gather to pay respect to the deceased’s remains. This is one of the biggest gatherings of family members and friends, aside from weddings and baptism. Similar to Latin America, women also wear white veils and black pins to show that they are mourning.
Patintero or harang taga – try to cross my line without letting me touch or catch you – there are five members 5 in each group. Each member of the group who is it stands on the water lines. The perpendicular line in the middle allows the it designated on that line to intersect the lines occupied by the it that the parallel line intersects, thus increasing the chances of the runners to be trapped.even only one(1) member of a group is tagged the whole group will be the “it”.
Tumbang preso or presohan (tumba-patis in most Visayan regions) is a popular Filipino street game and is commonly seen in most Filipino movies and TV series.
Like other Filipino traditional games, members take the following rules: one as the “taya”, someone who takes the rule of a-player-at-stake and holds the responsibility of the Lata(tin can), and; the two others as the players striking. The game is performed by having the players a “pamato” (which is ones own slipper) used for striking the tin that is held beside the taya.
As to how the game cycles, the taya, is obliged to catch another player to take over his position of running after the tin that keeps from throwing away by the strikes of the players. Nevertheless, the taya is only privileged to do so only if the player is holding on his way a pamato and when the tin is on its upright position. Hence, running after another player is keeping an eye to the tin can’s position. As for the players, they have their whole time striking the tin can and running away from the taya keeping themselves safe with their pamato since making the tin fell down helps another player from recovering. Instance like having everyone had their turns over is one big climax of the game that leads them to panic since case is that taya has all his rights to capture whether the player have a hold of their pamato or not.
However, mechanics also give each side privileges. With the roadway or streets as the area being performed, the taya take its place on one side held its tin centered on the ground while on the other end is bound by a line that limits the player when throwing. Breaking rules to the players give way for the taya to have his overturn, like: stepping on or outside the boundary line when throwing; kicking the tin; striking the tin without having oneself reaching the line; or even touching it.
In other versions, especially those in Visayan regions and Southern Luzon, is of complexity for the part of the taya. The latter has to make the tin can stand upright together with its own “pamato” on the top of it which also adds up to the mechanics of the game. The tendency is that even when the taya has already made everything stood up but when the slipper will fall from the tin, he is not allowed catching anybody unless he hurriedly put it back to its position.
Luksong-Baka (lit. jump over the cow) is a popular variation of Luksong Tinik. One player crouches while the other players jump over him/her. The crouching player gradually stands up as the game progresses, making it harder for the other players to jump over him/her.Then he will be the taya if he dangled it the baka. It will repeat again and again until the players declare the player or until the players decide to stop the game.it is the filipino version of leap frog.
Luksong-tinik (lit. jump over the thorns) two players serve as the base of the tinik (thorn) by putting their right or left feet together (soles touching gradually building the tinik). A starting point is set by all the players, giving enough runway for the players to achieve a higher jump, so as not to hit the tinik. Players of the other team start jumping over the tinik, followed by the other team members.
Agawang sulok (lit. catch and own a corner) the it or tagger stands in the middle of the ground. The players in the corners will try to exchange places by running from one base to another. The it should try to secure a corner or base by rushing to any of those when it is vacant. This is called “agawan base” in some variants, and “bilaran” in others.
Araw-lilim – sun and shade – The it or tagger tries to tag or touch any of the players who is in direct contact with the light.
A role-playing game where children act as members of an imaginary family, sometimes to the extent that one of them becomes the family “pet.” They then act out various household situations such as dinner, going to mass, and the like. there should be 4 to 5 players of it.
A hand-clapping game generally involving 4 people. They are split into two pairs, a pair having 2 people facing each other, and all members from both pairs facing the center (the two pairs being perpendicular to each other). Each pair then does a hand clapping “routine” while singing the “bahay kubo” or “Leron-leron Sinta” At the middle of the song, each pair exchanges “routines” with the other.
The Philippine Costumes
Barong Tagalog for Men
Barong Tagalog, the official national costume of Filipino men,
originated from the northern part of the Philippines, and is originally
made of jusi or pineapple cloth called “pina” (woven from pineapple leaves).
It is worn over a Chinese collarless shirt called camisa de Chino.
It exhibits the loose, long lines of its Chinese sources, the airy
tropical appearance of Indo-Malay costume, the elongated effect of Hindu dressing,
and the ornamental restraint of European men’s clothing.
Today, barong tagalong can come from different materials and different colors.
It is usually used for formal occasion and meetings
The Mestiza Dress is a formal dress made of expensive lace and fabric adorned with embroideries.
It is the sophisticated version of the national costume, the baro’t saya (blouse and skirt).
Made more popular by former Philippine First Lady Imelda Marcos,
some even called it Imelda dress or terno.
Mestiza dress is known for its elegance and butterfly sleeves.
It is usually worn for formal occasion
Models are wearing Barong Balintawak and the Mestiza Dress
Maria Clara Dress
Maria Clara’s dress was named after a mestiza heroine of one of the novels of the Philippine National hero Dr. Jose Rizal.
Its origin was the national costume of Filipino women which is baro’t (shirt) saya (skirt).
The Maria Clara gown features a floor-length paneled skirt of silk or satin
and it consists of four separate pieces:
the collarless waist-length, bell sleeved camisa; the bubble-shaped, floor-length saya; the stiff,
neck-covering pañuelo; and the hip-hugging, knee length tapis, or overskirt.
This dress originated from the Visayas, can be worn for everyday
activities as casual dress or for formal occasion.
Its origin was the baro’t (shirt) saya (skirt), the national costume for
Filipino women during the early years.
A casual kimona dress is always worn with matching
West Visayan wrap around called “patadyong” as a skirt.
This attire is used by the tribes in Mountain Province of
The Cordillera ranges, called Igorots. They have their own unique costume
that makes them distinctive from other tribes in the Philippines.
This costume reflects their way of life, cultures, personalities, religious practices and rituals.
Igorot costume is very simple.
The men wear long strips of handwoven loin cloth called “wanes”.
The woman wear a kind of wrap-around skirt called “lufid”.
This attire is worn by the Muslims who live
in the southern part of the Philippines.
It features long skirts for the women, frequently woven with metallic threads,
and shorter, wrap-around skirts for the men.
The women also frequently have overskirts and scarves draped from the shoulder.
Batik design is also common with this costumes.
It shows the mix of Arab, Malaysian and Chinese.
Elaborate umbrella makes a nice fashion statement, usually used by a Muslim princess.
The malong is traditionally used as a garment by numerous tribes
in the Southern Philippines and the Sulu Archipelago.
Its origin is from the ethnical group of Maranao,
Maguindanao and T’boli located in Mindanao.
Handwoven malongs are made by the weavers on a backstrap loom.
Very rare malong designs and styles can indicate the village in which the malong was made.
Handwoven malongs, which are costly- made of cotton and silk,
are likely to be used only at social functions, to display
the social and economic status of the wearer.
But a malong in royal colours is worn only by Maranao men and women of royal status.
The malong can also function as a skirt for both men and women,
a dress, a blanket, a bedsheet, a hammock, a prayer mat, and other purposes.
The Philippine Tribal Costumes
Although the Philippines has developed a mixed culture
from the blending of foreign influences with native elements,
there are still some ethnological groups whose culture remains unadulterated.
Here are some beautiful images of the Filipinos tribal costumes that
still remain as part of their traditional culture up to this day.
The B’laan are one of the indigenous peoples of Southern Mindanao in The Philippines.
They are famous for their brassworks, beadwork and t’nalak weave.
The people of these tribes wear colorful embroidered native costumes and beadwork accessories.
The women of these tribes, particularly, wear heavy brass belts
with brass ‘tassels’ ending in tiny brass bells that herald their
approach even when they are a long way off.
The Bagobo are proud people with proto Malayan features.
They have ornate traditions in weaponry and other metal arts.
They are noted for their skill in producing brass articles through the ancient lost-wax process.
These people also weave abacca cloths of earth tones and make baskets
that are trimmed with beads, fibers and horse’s hair.
The T’boli distinguish themselves from other Tribal Groups
by their colorful clothes, bracelets and earrings,
this tribe is famous for their complicated beadwork,
wonderful woven fabrics and beautiful brass ornaments.
The Mandayas are a group of non-Christian tribe,
non-Islamic people living in Eastern Mindanao, Philippines
They hand down from generation to generation the art of weaving cloth
from the fibers of abaca plant, colored with root and mud dyes with intricate
figures and patterns depicting the folklore and religion of the tribe
Typical Muslim Maranaw costumes (bottom-left photo).
The attire of Maranaw prince and princess.
“Maranaw” means ‘people of the lake’, referring to lands surrounding Lake Lanao.
Descending from Muslim Malays, the royal families within this tribe
are a mix of Arab, Malaysian and Chinese ancestry.
They are famous for their artwork, sophisticated weaving, wood and metal craft, and their epic literature.
Basilan is home to the Yakan Tribes, also known as one of the finest weavers in Philippines.
They are known to weave the most intricate designs in their clothes, purses and other accessories.
The Ifugao, immortalized by their magnificent rice terraces; inhabit the rugged terrain of the
extensive Cordillera Mountain Ranges of Central Luzon
Ifugaos have woven on looms and carved works of art from blocks of woods.
The rice terraces is a symbol of their industry that will live through the ages.
The Kalinga are called the “peacocks of the north”
because of their attention to appearance and dressing.
Kalinga is a landlocked province of northern Cordillera, Philippines.
“Kalinga” means enemy, a name that the bordering inhabitants
called this tribe because of their headhunting attacks.
The name stuck and became accepted by the natives themselves.
The Gaddang are an indigenous people from the area of Solano,
in the province of Nueva Vizcaya, in the region of Cagayan Valley
also known as region II, in the Philippine Islands.
The Gaddang tribe was first discovered by the Spaniards in the early 1600’s.
An early Spanish report written in 1581 identified them as one of ten tribes in the mountains of Northern Luzon.
They are the people who live in the mountainous areas of Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province and Kalinga-Apayao.
The tribe’s traditional clothing leaves males and females bare above the waist.
But because of modern influence, younger members of the tribe wear trousers,
shirts, dresses and shoes that lowland Filipinos usually wear
The Samal are the poorest and least independent of the major Muslim groups.
They serve as the “loyal commoners” in the hierarchy of Muslim minorities.
Their lives are literally over the sea, where the villages stand on stilts above the coastal waters
The Ibaloi are the highlanders of Benguet and the city of Baguio.
The Ibalois are collectively known as “Igorot”.
They traditionally live by cultivating rice and agriculture.
The Philippines’ aboriginal inhabitants called the Aetas
provided the pattern for these rough cotton costumes.
The Aetas or Negritos are nomads, scattered among the isolated
mountainous parts of central Luzon.
They are thought to be the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines.
Living in the Pulangi River headwaters in the southern part of Bukidnon,
the Pulangiyen is one of the many indigenous natives of the province.
The Matigsalug are the Bukidnon groups who are found in the
Tigwa-Salug Valley in San Fernando, Bukidnon.
“Matigsalug ” is a term, which means “people along the River Salug”.
Their men wear short tight-fitting pants that are of knee length
and are hem and turbans for the head decorated with beads and
fringed with goat’s/horse’s hair
Lolong is the largest crocodile in captivity. He is an Indo-Pacific or Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) measured at 20 feet 3 inches (6.17 meters), making him one of the largest crocodiles ever measured from snout-to-tail.
In November of 2011, Australian crocodile expert Dr. Adam Britton of National Geographic sedated and measured Lolong in his enclosure and confirmed Lolong as the world’s longest crocodile ever caught and placed in captivity.
Officials of the town of Bunawan where the crocodile was captured said that experts from the National Geographic Channel found out that Lolong breaks the record of the previous record-holder: a 17 feet and 11.75 inches (5.48 meters) male saltwater crocodile named “Cassius” kept in the crocodile park of MarineLand Melanesia in Queensland, Australia.
Lolong was caught in a Bunawan creek in the province of Agusan del Sur in the Philippines on September 3, 2011.He was captured with the joint cooperation of the local government unit, residents and crocodile hunters of Palawan. It took three weeks to hunt down the giant crocodile and about 100 people to take him out of the water. Lolong broke twice from restraining ropes before he was properly secured and he became extremely aggressive several times. He is estimated to be at least 50 years old.
Lolong is suspected of eating a farmer who went missing in the town of Bunawan, and also of consuming a 12-year-old girl whose head was discovered two years earlier. He is also the primary suspect in the disappearance of water buffaloes in the area. In the examination of the stomach contents after his capture, remnants of water buffaloes reported missing before Lolong’s capture were found, but no human remains. Experts say the vast Agusan Marsh’s tourism potential needs intensive study to avoid fatal human-crocodile encounters. The capture of Lolong is a good advantage in protecting it for survival, against danger he posed to the humans, an attraction and income for the locality, and an opportunity for scientific study.
The non-governmental organization (NGO) activist Animal Kingdom Foundation Inc. with a cooperation of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) has urged the local government ofBunawan to return Lolong in the creek of barangay Nueva Era, where the giant reptile was captured. But, in an ongoing debate, Bunawan mayor Edwin “Cox” Elorde and residents of the barangay oppose the crocodile’s release, arguing that it would threaten individuals living in the vicinity of the creek.
Philippines (Filipino: Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam. The Sulu Sea to the southwest lies between the country and the island of Borneo, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia. It is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and its tropical climate make the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons but have also endowed the country with natural resources and made it one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the world. An archipelago comprising 7,107 islands, the Philippines is categorized broadly into three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila.
With a population of more than 92 million people, the Philippines is the 7th most populated Asian country and the 12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12 million Filipinos live overseas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago’s earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic societies. Trade and subsequent Chinese settlement eventually introduced Chinese cultural influences which remain to this day.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in the Philippines in 1565 and consolidated Spanish rule in the islands, which remained a colony of Spain for more than 300 years.
Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleon fleet. As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic; the Spanish-American War; and the Philippine–American War. In the aftermath, the United States emerged as the dominant power; aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until the end of World War II when the Philippines gained independence. Since then, the Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with democracy, with popular “people power” movements overthrowing a dictatorship in one instance but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of its constitutional republic in others.